4 - Jeunesse, mobilisations sociales et citoyenneté en Afrique de l’Ouest : étude comparée des mouvements de contestation « Y’en a marre » au Sénégal et « Balai citoyen » au Burkina Faso

by Ibrahima Touré


young people, social movements, citizenship, Senegal, Burkina Faso


Within the framework of worldwide social forums (Porto Alegre in 2001, 2003, 2005 ; Bamako in 2002 ; Nairobi in 2007 ; Dakar in 2011) one can notice these last years a wide range in Africa of civic and social mobilizations led by associations of young people. In their respective countries, these latter are actively taking part in the fights for issues related to society, economic and political management in the continent ; a challenge which they do no longer accept to be the sole responsibility of trade-unions, political parties, and decisions makers. It’s true that scientific works about these forms of social mobilizations of young people are on increase, but the procedures they adopt are descriptive and are rarely of comparative nature. We aim to make use of the analysis models of actionnalism and political process (processuspolitique) in order to demonstrate that whether they are allied or not, these movements are expressive of the democratic vitality of the continent. They can be looked upon as real anti-establishment forces ; individually and collectively, depending on the present opportunities and constraints, they involve the citizens in new systems of value. Their ultimate purpose is not only to create conditions for a total political reformation, but to favour social change for development. Besides, these movements constitute new opportunities allowing their countries to strengthen their democracy, but also to widen their representativeness possibilities. This paper is centered on a comparative analysis of two modest but exemplary contestation movements in West Africa founded by young opinion leaders. They are « Y’en a marre » in Senegal and « Balai citoyen » in Burkina faso. To this end we try to highlight their historical background, their political and conflicting nature, their forms of struggle, the occupied fields and the impacts of their mobilizations on the public spaces of the considered countries.

Ibrahima Touré, Docteur en sociologie, Burkina Faso. E-mail : tibrahima62@gmail.com